Holy Trinity in the Light of Quantum Physics

The is a lot of commonality between quantum physics and Christian belief in the Holy Trinity. Both present before us the logic of one and many. It may be interesting to dwell in these common spaces. It might lead us to understand Holy Trinity in a deeper way. Christians arrived at their belief in the Holy Trinity through debate, discussion, dialogue and the ecumenical councils Christian belief primarily consists in the acceptance in faith that the Holy Trinity is a communion of three divine persons who are co-substantial. It was mainly based on what God has revealed to us in and through Jesus Christ. Mathematically, we have a triangle as the best model to analogically draw insight into the Holy Trinity. The triangle has three sides yet it is one reality so also the three persons of the holy trinity make one God. Maybe superposition or entanglement of particles in quantum physics can offer similar insight. We may analogically accept that a superstate of Father, Son and the Holy Spirit is allied to the entanglement of particles in quantum physics.

Quantum Physics and a Kenotic God

In the quantum state of superposition, it is only when we do the measurement that we come to know about the other component in the superposition. Superposition does provide an insight into the perichoretic(mutual indwelling) relation between the three persons of the Holy Trinity. In fact, it can even illumine God’s involvement in the world. This means God has a perichoretic relation with the world too. But God is not reducible to the world. God, therefore is revealed as a kenotic God in modern Science. Kenosis manifests us an involving God in our evolving universe. We come to the manifestation of a self-emptying and self-limiting God. It does lead us to understand God love manifested on the cross in Christianity. Indeed, it also has to be stated that quantum field theory does provide us an analogy to understand the presence and activity of the Holy Spirit in the world. It illumines the immanent and economic expressions of the Holy Trinity in the world. It is revealed to us as kenotic, agapeistic and sanctifying love of the Holy Trinity. Hence, to deepen our understanding, we take analogy of relationship (analogia relationis) rather than analogy of being ( analogia entis). This means God must have self-limited himself in order to generate possibility for the creation But we have to admit that the involvement of the divine in the world is reciprocal in as much the world also influences the divine.

Quantum Logic and Kenosis of the Cross

The self-emptying of God in the creation is not the full disclosure of God. God transcends the world. The economic Trinity does not empty the immanent trinity. But there is a divine mark or signature in the creation. It is the Gospel of creation. The kenosis of the divine in creating the other/ creation creates possibilities of true relations. In this sense, incarnation is an intensification of the process of creation and opening of the possibilities of relations. The depth of divine emptying comes through the death of Jesus Christ, the second person of the Holy Trinity on the cross. We can trace quantum logic that breaks apart all oppositional thinking in the event of the death on the cross. We can see that power comes in weakness, victory comes in defeat and life comes through death. Kenotic Christology leads us to the kenotic Trinity. It is indeed a revelation of agapeistic self-limitation of God that opens a space to the creation as the other of the divine so that it can relate to God and be sanctified and experience salvation.

Entanglement of God and Creation

The Kenotic God is entangled with the creation. God’s own becoming is entangled with that of creation. Just like particles are entangled with each other, God and creation share perichoretic relations. This is why God’s becoming affects creation and its becoming and the becoming of creation relates with the becoming of God. Just like the three persons of the Holy Trinity are intertwined through a relation of perichoresis, the entanglement of particles in quantum physics seem to show us that the divine and creation are also entangled through a relation of perichoresis. Maybe this entanglement is operationalized by the Holy Spirit. It is the kenotic love of God that ushers in divine self-limitation and hence divine determinism gives way to the indeterministic autonomy of creation. God is the power to be of all creation. God brings everything into being, holds everything into being and leads everything to its final fulfilment. Thus, God is the source, sustainer and the summit of the entire creation.


Quantum physics allows us to dive deep into the mystery of perichoresis. It offers us possibilities of understanding the dynamism of divine indwelling in each of the persons of the Holy Trinity. It also brings a deep insight in the relation of kenosis and enable us to understand a perichoretic relation of the divine and creation without necessarily falling into the trap of both pantheism and panentheism. Quantum entanglement illumines the choreography of divine perichoresis in the immanent expressions of the Holy Trinity as well as the economic expressions of the Holy Trinity.

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Hypocrisy is the tribute that vice pays to virtue.

- Fr Victor Ferrao