Human resources of the Village communities

Village communities are constituted by and for the Gaunkars. Gaunkars have birthright over all the assets of the village community. One becomes Gaunkar by birth. All Gaunkars claim they are descendants of the original settlers through the male line. They have the right to zonn, a monetary dividend distributed from the surplus income of the commune. The village communities also constituted of individuals who were called zonnkars who were rewarded by the commune for their special contribution to our community. They too had the right to zonn of the commune. In some cases, they get only three-forths or half of the zonn.  The kind of share in the zonn changes from one community to other community.

Next, an important category of individuals in village communities were clerks. They are Kulkarnis and Nadkarnis and were entrusted with the proper maintenance of books of the communes. Their task included maintenance of genealogies of the Gaunkars, records of the council, particularly their resolutions, and accounts of the lands. They were entitled to a share in the surplus revenue of the commune and were allowed nomos with no ownership rights. In some village communities, a fixed sum call voton was given to them. They were therefore called votondar. They were most literate and knowledgeable. Sometimes it is said that they used their position to manipulate the books of village communes which were soley in their custody.

Being caste organized, the village communities engaged personnel called kullachari. Chari are artisans, hence kullchari meant artisons of a clan. They belonged to upper castes, mostly Brahmins and Kshatriya who were helping the Gaunkars with tasks which other artisons of the Sudra caste were not allowed to do. Those that worked as kullchari in one commune may be Gaunkars in another commune. The kullachari performed tasks of carrying the banners during processions and were called bonderkar. Some of them rendered services at childbirth and were called nhanneikar. Others who carried touch at night to illuminate the path for the Gaunkars were called chuddikar. Still others who carried the umberella of honour over the heads of Gaunkars and were called sotrekar (sombreios) . They were entitled for the full zonn like the Gaunkars. Another group of employees of the commune called Vatteli or Vaddikar who had a share in the surplus revenue of the community but who are now extinct are found mentioned about in some conflicts in the courts. Thus, for instance, Vantellis of Raia are said to have succeeded in getting admission as Gaunkars members of the nineth Vangodd(clan) in 1640.

The accionistas or holders of accao means shareholders in Portuguese accionistss have the right to the surplus revenue of the village commune. My parish of St. . Francis Xavier, Borim has two shares (accoes) in the commune of Ugem in Sanguem. The Khunttkar is another category of individuals, who gained forcible entry into the commune and demanded thier share of surplus income. Last but not least is the village deity ( gram devta) or saint. Both Hindus and Christians accorded more than one zonn to the partron deity or saint of the village. The village commune looked after the building and maintenance of the temple or the Church/Chapel of the Village. The village communities also looked after the celebration of religious ceremonies as well as festivals.

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