1967-cho Opinion Poll: Ek Somazbhasvinyanik Mulyakon

– Dr. Hanumant Chopdekar

Konknni chollvollicho vichar kelear, Opinion Pol’lachem parv hem ek bhangrallench parv mhonnpak zai. Karonn Opinion Pol’lan Konknni chollvollik mukt Goyant svobhimanan prosthapit ravche khatir ek soshakt (bollixtt) machi dili. Opinion Pol zaunk naslo zalear Konknni chollvollin jem zoit zoddlam tem zoddunk anik kaim vorsam lagtolim aslim. Opinion Polantlean somost Goykarancho Konknni osmitayekodden ani apunn Konknni monis hea totvacho sokhol porichoy zalo. Goychea somazkaronnachi ani rajkaronnachi bhas Konknni. Konknni monis loz-bhid dhorinastana vhodda dhittayen Konknnintlean aple bhoxik vevhar korpak laglo. Xikxonn, sahitya, potrkarita, nattok, kala-prokar oxea mollancher Konknnik chonvor yeunk laglo. Karonn Opinion Polan Goykaranchi somazik, sonvskrutik ani rajki osmitay sugur keli.

16 Janevari 1967 hea disa Bharot sorkaran Goy Daman ani Diu songhprodexant svotontr Bharotantlo ekmev oso “janmot kol” (Opinion Poll) ghetlo. Goychea rajki fuddarachi dixea spoxtt korpi ani Goykaranchi bhaxik osmitay sugur dovorli. Hea janmot kolachi fattlean khoimchi sonvskrutik, somajik, rajki karonnam axil’lim? Janmot kol konnem, koso jiklo? Tatunt konnem, koslem yogdan dilem? Oxe sobar proxnnacho sod prostut lekhant ghetla. Bhov tottsth’tayen hea songhorxeachem mulyeakon kelea uprant azun meren mellunk naxil’lea zaitea itihasik, somazik, rajki bhaxik proxnnacheo zapo melltoleo ho haves hea obheasant dovorla.

Aarombh ani Prostavna

Bharotant 1967 vorsa poilech favtt zaun gel’lea hea itihasik ‘janmot kolachi’ vyeakheam kortana ‘Opinion Pol’ hea pustokant Sadanand Kannekar boroita, “Opinion Pol hi Goychea itihasantli bhovuch oduvitiy ghoddnnuk. Taka Goychem dusrem ani khorelem svotontray mhonnop odik sobun distolem.”

Bharot sorkaran vechnnuk aayoga vatten zori ‘Opinion Pol’ ghoddoun haddil’lo aslo tori ti fokt ek rajki svorupachi vechnnuk naxil’li. Bharotant tachi poili ani uprantui toslo pol (janmot) porot ken’na zalo na ani ghoddiye zavchoi na. Hea polachi fattbhuim somzun ghevpak sobondit vixoyak dhorun tea vella veli Goy Daman ani Diu songhprodexantli toxench Bharotantli rajki ani bhaxik poristhiti somzun ghevchi poddtoli. Karonn Goychea Opinion Polachi fattbhuim tatunt liploli asa–

A) Konknni Marathi Bhaxik Vadachi Fattbhuim

Bharot ani Goy, Daman ani Diu hancho vichar kelear, 15 Agost 1947 hea disa British razvottitlean svotontr zal’lea Bharota poros vott chovda vorsani 19 Dezembr 1961 disa sombondit vattarak Purtugezanche zulmi razvottintlean mukti mell’lli. Punn ti 1961 vorsa-chi muktatay hi fokt ek rajki svotontry tharlem, Goyant khorem svorajy yevchem khatir 1867 meren vatt pollounchi poddli. Karonn Goychi rajki ani bhaxik osmitay khoimchi? Marathi kai Konknni? Marathi zalear Goy Maharashtra-nt vilin zavpak zai kai naka? Oxe zaitea proxnnani tea vellar svotontr Goyant dhumakull ghatil’lo. Hea proxnnani Goychea somazachem soroll don vantte korun udoile. Tea ghottan dhormik ani zati rong fankil’lo. Goychea fuddara vixim gondollachem vattavoronn patoll’lil’lem. Hindu raxttravadi ani a-Hindu Goykar a-raxttravadi oso chukicho somoz fofavpak lagil’lo. A-visvasachem ani dubhavachem vatavoronn soglleak patoll’lil’lem. Ekondor, Goycho fuddar kallokhant chachpoddunk lagil’lo.

Toxem, Purtugez Goyantlean vetoch Goy ani Goycho rajki fuddar koso astolo hache vixim Goykar ani heram modem Goyche mukti poili sakun vadvivad choltalo. Punn choddxe vad nemalleani, potrkani, gronthani, chorchastotrani, porisonvadani vo somelanani vecharik svorupan cholot ail’le. Ho vadvivad Konknni vo Marathi hea bhaxik totvachea mhalvozar rajki havesachi mokh ballgitalo. Tedea-vellar, Konknni ani Marathi heo don vichardhara apnnavpi don vecharik provah Goyant vhanvpak lagle. He sombondi ghodil’leo sobar ghoddnnuko Opinion Polachi fattbhuim kortat. He fattbhiumyer panch mhotvacheo ghoddnnuko ghoddleo jeo 1967 vorsacho Opinion Pol ghoddunk mukhel karonn tharleo, dekhik:

  1. Sahitya Sevok Mondolla voting 1935 vorsa Moddganvam poilem ‘Gomantak Marathi Sahitya Som’melon’ ghoddlem. Goychi osmitay Marathi dekgun Goy Maharaxtrachoch vantto mhonnun som’melon vavrunk lagle.
  2. 8 Julai 1939 disa Karvar Madhav Manjunath Shanbhag hanchea soyojonan ‘Akhil Bhartiy Konknni Porishod’ sthapon zali. ‘Ek bhas, ek lipi, ek somaz, ek sahitya’ hem totv apnnaun porishod Konknni bhaxik ani sonvskrutik ekchara khatir vavrunk lagli.
  3. 1940 vorsa Pune ‘Sonyukt Maharashtr Porishod’ sthapon zaun Goy dhorun Belgaum, Karwar, Nipanni sarke vattar Maharashtrak zoddpacho vichar mukhar ailo. 1946 vorsa he chollvollin boroch nett dhorlo.
  4. 1945 vorsa Mumbai-nt ‘Blowahattski Lo-zeant’ (Lounge) zal’lea tisrea Gomantak Marathi som’melonant Konknni Marathichi boli asa oso tharav bhovmotan ghetlo. Tacher Konknni smorthokam koddchean virodh zalo. Ten’na saun Konknni gott chodd akormok zalo.
  5. 1960 vorsa Mumbai ‘The Goa Hindu Association’ he sonsthen Goy mukt zatokuch Maharashtra vilin korpacho tharav ghetlo. Taka Mumbai xikpi kaim Goykar vidhyartheani khor virodh kelo.

B) Bharotantli Bhaxeavar Rajy Nirmonnechi Fattbhuim

Svotontr Bharotant soglleant poilo bhaxik osmitayecho bovall zalo to 1952 voros. 1952 vorsa Bharotache udentek Andhra vattaran ‘Telgu’ bhaxik lokani aple bhaxik dhorun vegllem rajy mell’chem mhonnun nettan magnnim suru kelim. ‘Madhras Pranthantlea’ Telgu bhaxikam khatir vegllem rajy magpi ti magnnim mhonnche bhaxik osmitaye velem Bharotantlem poilem andolan aslem. Tanchem fuddarponn Potti Shriramul hannem kel’lem. Hea andolanachi dokhol gheun Kendr serkara voting ten’nache prodhanmontri Jawaharlal Nehru-n “Sorodh Commission-achi’ (boundary Commission) sthapnnuk korun ani her kaideaxir gozalicher yevzonn zullovun toxench ‘Andhra Rajy Kaido 1953-chea’ ontorgot nimannem 1 October 1953 disa ‘Andhra Pradesh’ hea novea rajyeachi nirmiti keli. (1953, the 16 northern, Telgu-speaking districts of Madras State became the new State of Andhra).

Svotontr Bharotantle bhaxeavar pranth rochnnecho to aarombh aslo. He ghoddnnukechea probhavan Bharotantle zaite her bhaxik gott sokiry zaun vingodd vingodd bhaxik pranxik pranthanchi magnnim zor dhorpak lagli. Punn Bharot sorkara mukhar her somajik ani rajky proxn ubhe axil’lean 1950 te 1956 meren bhaxeavar pranth rochnnent vhoddlo bodol ghoddlo na.

Mozgoti 22 December 1953 disa Bharotache prodhanmontri Jawaharlal Nehru hannim punor’rochna korche khatir nyayadhish Fazal Ali hanche mukhelponna khala ‘Rajy Punor’rochna Ayog’ (State Re-Organization Commission) sthapon kelo. Hea ayog-ak December 1954 pasun kendr ghormontri Govind Bollal Pant hanchem margdorxonn lablem. Hea ayog-an 1955 meren aplo ahval toyar korun sorkarak 10 October 1955 disa sador kelo. Sorkaran 31 Agost 1956 hea disa Fazal Ali Ayog-acheo suchovnneo manun gheun 1 November 1956 disa sovidhanant satve durusti (amendment) vidhyek laun rajy punor’rochna kaido 1956 (State Re-organization Act 1956) manun ghetlo.

Heach kaidea ontorgot manil’lea A ani B pod’dhotichea rajyeank ghottok rajy zalear C ani D pod’dhotinchea pranthank kendrsheasit pradesh mhunn ma’neatay dili. He sombondi ‘Sonyukt Maharashtra Nirmiti’ ani ‘MahaGujarat Janta Porishod’ sarkhea songhottnani ‘Sonyukt Bombay’ rajyeachem sonkolpnek khor virodh kelo. Vhodd andolan zalem ani tantutlean 1960 meren Maharashtra ani Gujarat oxim don rajyeam onukroman Marathi ani Gujrati bhaxik totvacher nirmann zaupak pavlim. 1956 vorsa rajy punor’rochnnuk ayoy-an bhaxik totvacher vott’tt 14 rajyeam ani 7 kendrsheasit pradesh nirdeshit kele. Punn 1 Mai 1930 disa Maharashtr ani Gujarat rajyeache nirmonne uprant rajyeanchi sonkhea 15 zali.

Goycho Rajki Fuddar ani Opinion Pol

Bhaxik totvacher rajyeani punor’rochna hea vixoya sombondi nond gheupachi gozal mhonnllear, Bharoty svotontrtayechea 14 vorsa uprant Bharoty rajyvyeavosthecho vantto zalo. Mhonnttokuch, 1948 te 1961 meren bhaxik totvacher rajy-rochnnuk sombondi ghoddun gel’leosobar ghoddnnuko hea vattaram khatir lagu zaunk pavleo nant. Toxench Goy mekllem zotokuch tea vella-vele raxttr ani ontor-raxttr poristhitik lagun Goy sombondi bhaxik totvak dhorun sott korun vichar zalo na. Punn hea vellar poili Maharashtra ani uprant Mysore (atanchem Karnataka) rajyeakoddchean mat Goy ho aploch bhaxik ani sonvskrutik vattar asa oso davo sangop chalu urlem. Zo uprant Goychea rajki, sonvskrutik ani somajik mollacher bhovuch motto akant matoun gelo. Tea proxnacho suttavo korpak nimannem Opinion Pol gheupachi tozviz Bharot sorkarak korchi poddli. Khaxea Goychea Opinion Polacher boroil’lea “Triumph of Secularism” hea aplea sonshodhanatmak gronthan lekhok toxench potrkar Rajan Narayan Goy sombondi bhov suchok vidhan kortat. Te mhonnttat “History would perhaps have taken different turn if Goa had been liberated simultaneously with rest of India, in which case there might have arisen a larger Konkan State comprising the entire Konkan area of Maharashtra, Mangalore and other parts of Konkani speaking Uttar Karnataka, and even perhaps Kasargod in Kerala, which has significant population of Konkani speaking people. (p.xiii)” 

Goyant vishixtt itihasik sothityontoram labunk naxil’lim zalear Goycho (vo Konkann prantacho) bhogol ani itihasui ghoddiye veglloch zaupacho. Magir thoim vilikoronnacho havko ubo ravcho naslo ani Pol-ui zaucho naslo. Ani rajy punor’rochnnuk ayog-ache xhifarsi promann Konkan pranthachi vo rajyeanchi nirmoti zaupak chodd motti oddchonn yevchi nasli. Punn Goy Bharota vangdda svotontr zalem na hem vastav. Tench vastav Goyant 1967 vorsa Opinion Pol gheun ailem.

Vilinikoronnachi Sonkolpona

Maharashtrant 1940 vorsachea Janevari mhoineant sonyukt Maharashtrachi sonkolpona manddpi ‘Sonyukt Maharashtra Sobha’ he songhttnnecho zolm zalo. Bharotantlea sogllea Marathi bhaxik pranthank ektthaim haddun ek vishal Marathi rajy nirmann korpachi mokh he songhttnnen dovoril’li. Goy-a viximcho vilinikoronnecho vichar soglleant poilim hech songhottnnen mukhar kaddlo oso nixkorx “Triumph of Secularism” hea gronthan Rajan Narayan kaddttat- “The movement to merge Goa with Maharashtra took root with the rise of the Samyukt Maharashtra Sabha, a group that was originally formed in January 1940; the SMS organization was aggressively promoted in Goa by politician from Goa (p.27)”.

Mhotvachi gozal mhonnche; Julai 1946 saun Sonyukt Maharashtra Sabha ‘Sonyukt Maharashtra Porishod’ hea nanvan novea zoman kam korunk lagil’li. Toxench, uprant 22 Dezember 1953 disa punor’rochna ayog sthapon zatokuch ‘Sonyukt Mharashtra Somiti’ ghoddun porishod-e porsui bhov mottea akormok pod’dhotin Marathi mhalgadde karyaroth zale. Mozgoti somiti ‘vishal Maharashtra’ ghoddoupak vavurtali hem lipun urunk naxil’lem. Madhyea Bharotiy pranth, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kan’naad ani Goy pranthantle Marathi bhaxik vattar ekttaun sonyukt Maharashtra nirmann korpacho haves tannem ballgil’lo.

Maharashtravadi Gomantak Pokx

6 March 1963 disa Maharashtravadi Gomantak Pokxeachi sthapnnuk Pune-chea Circuit House-ant zali. Tatunt Goycheo tin mukhel songhottna aspavit zaleo. Mapusa-xeantlean karyaroth Raghunath Tople ani S. Dhond (Maharashtravadi agddi), Fonde-saun (Ponda) V. Velingkar ani J.J. Shinkre (Sonyukt Maharashtravadi Gomantak) ani P.P. Shirodkar (Raxttry Congress – Goa-cho ek pongodd) hancheani mago songhottnen poili apleo songhottna vilin kel’leo ani uprant Goy Maharashtrant vilin korpak te vavrunk lagle. Proteakxeant magoche sthapnnukent Maharashtrache poilinch mukhelmontri ani Bharotache tea vella vele soronxonn montri Yeshwantrao Chauhan, Somazvadi neta S.M. Joshi, Nath Pe ani Goyche suttke zhuzari Peter Alvares hanchem fattboll labil’lem. Maharashtr ekikoronn somithichi nixanni ‘Xinv’ (Lion) asli. Tich M.Go pokxichi nixanni mhunn svikarop zalem. Tatuntlean Goychem Maharashtrant vilinikoronn hi hea songhottnnechi mukhel mokh asli hachi sulus lagta. 6 mhoinea bhitor Dayanand Bandodkar tea pokxeache neta zale.

United Goan Pokx

United Goan Pokxeachi sthapnnuk 1963 vorsachea September mhoineant zali. Tatuntui M.Go vorich her somvichari songhottnna vilin zaleo. Tantunt Dr. Jack Sequeira-cho ‘Goycho Pokx’, Dr. Alvaro de Loyola Furtado ‘De Partido Indiano’, Dr. Emsiryano Dias-achi ‘The Democratic Party’, J.M. D’Souza-che ‘The United Front of Goans’ toxench ‘The Goa National Union’ adim songhottnnecho aspav zata. U.Go-chem sonsthapak odheokx asle Dr. Alvaro de Loyola Furtado. Tannim uprant Dr. Jack Sequeira-chea songhotton kusholtai ani neturtovgunnank lagun taka U.Go-chem neturtov korpak dilem. Hea pokxan 1963-chea poilea Goy vidhansobhechea vechnnukent vott 12 amdar vechun dhaddle ani virodhi pokxachi bhumika niboili. Zalear 1967 vorsa zal’lea Opinion Pol-achea kolant Goykarank ghonnghonnit zoit zoddun dilem.

Opinion Polachi Mukhel 10 Sthitayontoram

Opinion Pol hem utor koxem ailem he sombondi zaite provah asat. Karonn Goycho rajki fuddar tharavpak poili ek ‘lokmot’ (referendum) gheuncho oso vichar choltalo. Kaim zann hem utor Indira Gandhi-n suchoilem mhonntat. Zalear kaim lok he sombondi M.Go-che vorixtt neta P. P. Shirodkarachem nanv ghetat. Punn Opinion Pol hem utor Bharot sorkarachea eka proxaski odhikarean suchoil’lem. Tea vellar kendr ghor-sochiv mhunn karyabhar sambhallpi L.P. Singh ho to odhikari. Goycho fuddar Goychea lokani tharavcho oso bhavart Opinion Pol-a fattlean aslo. Goy ek ‘songh pradesh’mhunn dovrop kaim ‘Maharashtrant vilin’ korop he don poryay Goykara mukhar axil’le. Eke nodren puray chitr spoxtt zavche khatir Opinion Polachi vechik vis sthtayontora ghoddnnuk promann sokoil manddleant:

  1. 19 December 1961: Bharot sorkarachem ‘Operation Vijay’ he loxkori karvayent Goy, Daman ani Diu meklle zalem. Military Governor mhunn General K.P. Candeth hanni Goycho karbhar samball’lo.
  2. 9 December 1963: Vidhansobhechi poili vechnnuk zali. Dayanand Bandodkar Goyche poile mukhelmontri zale.
  3. 12 December 1963: Praja Socialist Pokxache S.M. Joshi hanni Goy Maharashtra vilin korchem mhunn magnni.
  4. 22 Janevari 1965: Goy Maharashtra vilin zavchem oso amdar P.S. Naik hancho khasgi tharav vidhansobhen bovallant pass zalo. U.Go ani Congress Pokxacho virodh.
  5. 10 March 1965: Goy Maharashtran vilin korpa sombondi V.P. Naik hancho tharav Maharashtra vidhansobhen bhovmotan somont zalo.
  6. 15 March 1964: Goy nidhan dha vorsam tori Kendr shaxit prodesh urcho vo Goykarancho itse promann Goycho fuddar tharavcho. Dusrea rajeant vilin korcho asear to Mysore (atanchem Karnataka) rajeant korcho oso tharav Mysore vidhansobhen mozur korun ghetlo.
  7. 25 Julay 1965: U.Go ani raxttry Congress-in novean vechnnuk gheun vilinikoronnacho proxnn soddouncho mhunn sonyukt boskent magnni keli.
  8. 13 September 1966: Goycho fuddar janmot kolantlean tharavcho oso nirnnoy Bharot sorkarachea Kendr sonsodiy mondollan ghetlo.
  9. 30 November 1966: ‘Goa Daman ani Diu Opinion Pol Bill 1966’ Vidhyachoronn Shukla hanni parliament-an manddlem. Loksobhen ani Rajya-sobhen vhodd bhasabhas zaun bill mozur zalem.
  10. 16 December 1966: Bharotache mukhel vechnnuk odhikari K.V.K Sundaram hannim Opinion Pol-achi adhisuchovnni jahir keli. Pol 16 Janevaru 1967 disa ghevcho oxe jahir zale.

Hea Pol-ant puray Goykar vattekar zale. 16 December 1966 te 16 Janevari 1967 mozgati puray Goy Opinion Pol-achea rongan rongil’lem. Xekddeani boska, mirvonnuko, morcha, ghoxnna, vadvivad, potrkam, sobha ayojit zaleo. Ak’khem Goy polmoy zal’lem. Dayanand Bandodkaran 330 zalear Dr. Jack Sequeira-n 120 jahir sobha ghetil’leo. Opinion Pol-achea procharak Maharashtra sakun Vasantrao Naik, Yeshwantrao Chauhan, Vasant Dada Patil, P.L. Deshpande, Acharya Atre, Vasant Bapat, Nath Pe, Mohan Dhariya, Amar Shok ail’le toxench Peter Alvares, Anthony D’Souza, Tony Fernandes, Pro. Dioniz Ribeiro he mull Goykarui tanche modim asle. M.Go-che Dayanand Bandodkar, P.P. Shirodkar dhorun M.Go-che soglle neta vilinikoronna khatir ani Maharashtra khatir potttiddken vavurle. (kaim neta vixim ani tanche bhumike vixim thoddea obheaskani dubhav uktaila) tankam boro tenko mell’llo to Vishwasrao Chowgule hanchea ‘Gomantak’ hea Marathi disalleacho. Teach disalleak saddetodd zap diuche khatir ‘raxttrmot’ hem Marathi disallem Chandrakant Keni hanchea fuddaran Madganv saun suru zalem.

Goyche rajki ani bhaxik osmitayek rakhpachea karyant raxttrmota vangdda Dr. Jack Sequeira, Dr. Maurileo Furtado, Alvaro de Loyola Furtado-cho, Dr. Emsiryano Dias-achi, J.M. D’Souza-cho, Purushotam Kakodkar, Shankar Bhandari, Gurunath Kelekar, Pandurang Mullgaokar, Bakibab Borkar, Sumant Kelekar, Laxmanrao Sardesai, Jagnath Khalap, Dr. Jose Martins, Anton Pereira, Ligorio Carvalho, Evagriu George, Babu Naik, Antonio Moraes, Mohan Karapurkar, Dr. Vinayak Mayenkar, Nagesh Karmali, Malbarao Sardesai, Arvind Bhatikar, Ligorio Carvalho, Padri Lucio Coutinho, Narudhin Movani, Dasraj Telang, C.P. D’Costa, Ravindr Kelekar, Ulhas Buyao, Dr. Luis Proto Barbosa, Lambert Mascarenhas, Dr. Wilfred D’Souza, Irene Barosh, Victoria Fernandes, Jyoti Sarmallkar, Chandrakant Keni, Uday Bhembre, Shabu Desai, Dr. Manohar Sardesai, Felicio Cardozo, Vijayabai Sarmallkar, Vasudev Sarmallkar, Suhas Dalal, Carmo Azavedo, Harishchandra Nagvekar, Janardan Phaldesai, Damodar Mauzo, Sadanand Kanekar, N. Shivdas ani ganva-ganvantlean ani xharantlean a-sonkhea zat a-zat Goykarani yyogdan dilem. Zaka lagun Pol-achea modheamatlean 1967 vorsa Goy apli veglli rajki ani bhaxik osmita rakhunk pavle. Opinion Pol-an sabar proxn chorchek iet ravle. Tancher bhasabhas kelear hea songhorxeachi ontorik svedhana somozupak modot zatli.

Opinion Pol-antlean Ghoxnnani Vyeakt Zavpi Mud’de

Opinion Pol-achem vixlexonn kortana tatuntlea ghoxnnacho adar ghetlear Pol-antlea donui vottechea mud’deancho sod lagta. Voir mandil’le zaite atixoy vechik utrani ghoxnnachea modheamatlean abhivoykt zaunk xoktat. Dekhik:

Vilinikoronnavadi Ghoxnna

(Chin’n – Ful)

Songhprodeshvadi Ghoxnna

(Chin’n – Don Panam)

Akash patall ek korum,

Goa Maharashtrant vilin korum

Goy konnachem, Goykaranchem

Amchem Goy amkam zai

Amcha dava, Maharashtrant Goa

Jethe Mumbai, tethe Goa

Serkar have Ponnjila

Aplem mot songhprodexala

Belgaum, Nipanni, Karwar Goa

Soh sonyukt Maharashtr zalach pahije

Ghorche bhedi bhaile chor

Taka sangat vosimbhor

Vilinikoronn mhonnje,

Nodichem sagoraxim milan

Nako amha srikhandpuri

Amchi xit kodich bori

Vilinikoronn mhonnje,

Sortechem vikendrikoronn

Vilinikoronn mhonnje moronn
Vilinikoronn mhonnje,

Dudhan sakhor

Maharashttrachea vatteala dahi lonni

Gomantkiyanchea tonddala takpanni

Vilinikoronn, zalach pahije

Zalach pahije

Goa ever

Merger never

Mot konnala: mot fulala Don panank mot dium-ya

Goycho vikas sadumya

Maharaxttra tituka mellvava,

Maharaxttr dhorm vadvava

Konknni bhas amchi mai

Amchi mai amkam zai

Voir dil’leo vilinikoronnacheo ghoxnna Maharashtra ani Goy hancho itihasik ani sonvskrutik sombond dakhoun Goy Maharashtrant vilin korpacho hot kortana distat. “Goa ahe Maharaxttracha, nahi konnachea bapacha” vo “zalach pahije” sarkea ghoxnna tacheo dekhi asat. Toxench vilinikoronnache prokryek dhormik ani zati rong diun vilinikoronnavadi Marathi porompora, sonvskrutik, dhorm ani mudd’de upostit korun fokt Hindu dhormiyank lagim oddtat hachi ruzvat heo ghoxnna ditat. ‘vilinikoronn mhonnje dudhan sakhor’ vo nodichem sagoraxim milan’ oxea axecheo ghoxnna vistarvadi vrutichi zhalak dakhoitat.

Zalear songhprodeshvaleancheo ghoxnna ‘nako amha srikhand puri anchi xit koddich bori’ vo ‘Maharaxttrachea vattyeala dahi lonni Gomantkiyanchea tonddala takpanni’ oxea ghoxnnani vilinikoronnachi hava kaddta ani Goy vegllem dovorpacho haves porgottaitat. Toxench ‘konkani amchi mai bhas, amchi mai bhas amkam zai’ sarkeo ghoxnna Konkani bhas ani sonvskrutay hancho obhiman ballgun kherit Goycho puroskar kortana dixtti poddtat. Voilea ghoxnnani “Marathi add konknni, Maharashtra add Goy, rajyea add songhprodesh” oxea svorupachem duvonduv disun yeta.

Somazbhasvinyanik Mulyakon

1967 vorsacho janmot kol zori songhprodesh vale jikle tori orombhak Goyant 1963-tle vechnnukechi punorvruti zaun vilinikoronnvadi xokt jiktoli oxe vatavoronn axil’lem. Punn Pol-acho prochar suru zatokoch lhov lhov donui gottache dale soman patller pavil’le dista. Nimanne kodden, songhprodesha khatir vavurpi ghott zoitivont zalo. Tea zoitachi somaz bhasvinyanik molavnni kortolo zalear janmot kolacho nikall adim ustun pollovcho poddtolo. (see the table)

Voilea toktea velean Goykarani janmot kolant songhprodesha vatten nirnnoi dilo hem spoxtt zata. Tatunt songhprodeshak 1,72,191 motam zalear vilinikoronn vatten 1,38,170 motam mell’lim. Songhprodeshvale 34,021 motani zoitivont zale. (Daman ani Diu hea motdar songha khatir ‘songhprodesh kai Gujarat rajy’ oxe poryay dovril’lean thoim motanchi veglli meznni zal’li). Daman songhprodeshak 8,254 zalear vilinikoronnank 1,149 motam mell’lim. Diu-vant songhprodeshak 5,478 zalear vilinikoronnank 246 motam favo zaun donui kodden songhprodesha vatten kol mell’lo.

Janmot kolachi somaz bhasvinyanik molavnni kortana voilea toktyeacho adar gheun sobar torechi chikitsa korpachi sond asa. Kola vellar vilinikoronnvadeani dhormik ani zati prochar kel’lo. ‘vilinikoronn zalem na zalear Hinduchea ghora mukhar tulsiche suvater khuris yetolo’ vo ‘Devi Shantadurga zannar ambabayichea darshannala’ sarkeo ghoxnna, ‘Bhavani devichea padukanchi mirvonnuk, saraswat somaz bhojan somazak fattim dovorpak konknni chollvoll mukhar kaddta’. Oso prochar Hindu motdaram modim zatalo. Tatuntui Goychea sogllea dhormatlea lokak ekthaim gheun vochpi vichar zainaslo.

Kolachea kallar kaim rajki fuddareani, Marathi hi Hinduchi ani Konknni hi Kristanvachi oso chukicho prochar korpacho iotn kel’lo disun yeta. Tea iotnank Goycho soglloch somaz bolli poddlo na. karonn toslea dhormik procharak kuxik sarit Hindu ani Kristanv oxe donui somazan songhprodesha khatir motdan kel’leacho purave janmot kolacho nikall dita. Karonn Pednem, Mandrem, Divchol, Palli, Siolim, Satari, Madkai, Ponda, Shiroda, Sanguem, Quepem, Curchorem, Canacona hea Hindu bhosonkhea motdarsonghani vilinikoronnavaleank favo titlim aghaddi ghevop xokyea zalem na. Punn Cortalim, Benaulim, Navelim, Curtorim, Cuncolim, Santa Cruz sarkea Kristi bhosonkhea motdarsonghani mat songhprodeshvaleank chodd aghaddi ghevop xoky zalem.

Raxttrmot ani Chandrkant Keni Hachem Yogdan

Janmot kolant Goychea potrkaritechi mhotvachi bhumika asa. Goy Maharashttrant vilin zavche khatir udyojak Vishvasrao Chowgule hanchem ‘Gomantak’ hem disallem ukteponnan vaur kortalem. Taka Kashinath Damodar Naik ani sangateancho ‘Gomantvanni’ (Sompadak – Ram Prodhan) ani Maharashttrantlean prosidh zavpi her disallim ani nemallim sangat ditalim. Goycho bhaujan samaz tea kallar choddso a-xikxit vo alp-xikxit. To samaz Gomantak ani her Marathi disalleantlean prosidh zavpi vilinikoronnvadi khobricheruch patieun aplem mot toiar kortalo. Konknni ani songhprodeshvaeanchi bhumika tanche meren pavpak marg naslo. Te pasot tea Marathi disalleank tondd divche khatir ani songhprodeshak faido bhaujan samaza meren pavoupa khatir 1963 vorsa “raxttramot’ hem disallem Madganvam saun suru zalem. He vixim Chandrakant Keni hanchem yogdan molachem asa. Bhaujan samazacho tenko mell’lle bogor kol jikop kotthin hem motint dhorun Marathi vachpachi sovkoll axillae Hindu bhaujan samazak songhprodeshsache faide pottoun divopache tolamolachem karya raxttrmotache sompadak hea natean Chandrakant Keni hannim kelem.

‘Gomantak’ ani ‘Gomantvanni’ disalleantlean vilinikoronnacho prochar zatalo. Punn Goychea bhosa bhitor Goychea vegllea astitv sombondi zagrutay korpak Chandrakant Keni hanchea yotnant Vasudev Salganvkar ani bhav, Timblo Udyog somuh cholovp Timble bhav, Shantilal-Bapalal he bhav hannim artik zapsaldarki svikaril’li ten’na ‘NavGomant Prokaxon’ sthapon zaun ‘Raxttramot’ hem Marathi disallem 1 September 1963 disa suru zalem. Tea vellar chodd korun fokt Marathi vachpi Hindu bahaujan samazachem probhond korpachem ani vilinikoronnavadi Marathi neturtovak zap divpachem mhotvachem karya raxttramotan vhodda dhittayen kelem.

Konknni Bhaxa Mondollachem Yogdan

Konknni Bhaxa Mondoll ani her Konknni songhttnnani vilinikoronna add boska, bhaxik sobha, morcha, chorchastotram, proteakx gantti-bhetti gheun Hindu ani Kristanv oxe donui Goykar somaz ghottkank zagrut korun songhprodesha vatten motdan korpak prohvrut kelem. Somajik ani sonvskrutik mollar vaurpi Goy ani Maharashttrantlea songhottnnani janmot kollak dil’lem yogdan spoxtt kortana, Goychi ek itihas sonshodhika Maria D.C. Rodriques Goa’s Opinion Poll: Contest for Identity hea lekhant sokoilim utram boroita: “the socio-cultural and religious organization, both within Goa and in Maharashtra were involved in this contest of identity also. The Konkani Bhasha Mandal fough tirelessly to expose what is called ‘misconception that Konkani was Boli’ i.e. dialect of Marathi. It claimed that Konkani was a Language on its own, with its own grammar and vocabulary. It demanded the inclusion of Konkani in the VIII schedule of Indian Constitution’.

Konkanni Bhasha Mandal sarkhea Goychea ani Maharashttrantlea somajik ani sonvskrutik songhottnnani kollan Konknni bhaxik osmitayechem mhotv Goykarank pottoun divpant molacho vantto ukhol’lo. Konknni hi boli nhoi tor ti kherit bhas, dekhun ti Bhartiy sovidhanache attve vollerint aspavit zaupak zai, oxi magnni Konknni Bhasha Mandalla sarkea songhottnnani keli oxem Maria Rodriques mhunnta. Hanga ti sonshodhika Konknni songhottnnachem kollintlean yogdan adhorekhit korpacho yotn korta.

Konknni Sahityak Ghottachem Yogdan

Voir ul’lekh kel’lea songhottnnani tea vellar zaite Konknni somorthok rat dis vaurtale. Tatunt Konknni sahityik vhodda promannant skriy asle. Tanche-i yogdan hanga chorchint gheupak zai. Tatunt Bakibab Borkar, Manohar Sardesai, Shankar Bhandari sarkea kovini aplea kovititlean Goy ani Goykarponnacho sondex dilo zalear Chandrakant Keni, Janardan Phaldesai, Ravindra Kelekar, Uday Bhembre, Harischandra Nagvenkar, A.Na. Mhambre, sarkeani gadoi lekhantlean ani aplea soddetodd bhaxonnani Goykara modim svobhiman zagoupacho yotn kelo. Dekh mhonn janmot kola sondhorbantleo Bakibabacheo ‘Sasay’ hea kovita jheleantlean kaim kovita hanga dinv yeta-

Suria ditam chondr ditam, mhonnot bhailim mhovim
Ruvrunvtim Goyant amchea, ghalunk amkam davim (Kovita- Vellar Fuddem Polle)

Ghanttar saun aila jogi, vontti khonnunk sangta
Sadhav bhava, devaryantlo salligram magta (Kovita – Jogi)

Manohar Sardesai hanni janmot kola vellar Konknni kovititlean zagrutay haddpacho yotn kel’lo. Ten’na te ‘Kattu Pe’ ani ‘Humlo’ hea ttoponn nanvani vistarvadi vruticher aple kovitentlean boddi martale. Tanchi sokoili kovita hachi govai dita.

Nodor kavlleachi tovxear, nodor bukul’leachi bhopxear
Kavlleak tovxem mellchemna, bukul’leak bhopxem mellchena

Mellchena re mellchena, Goy amgelem mellchena. (Kovita – Goy Amchem Mellchena)

Konknni nanvar Hindu, Kristanv, Musolman oxea sogllea dhormatlea Goykarank ekthaim haddpacho ek yeshsavi yotn janmot kola vellar Konknni sahitiytlean zatalo. Janmot kolant Konknni sahitiykarani mhovachem yogdan dil’lem asa.

‘Brahashtr’ Hea Sodorachem Yogdan

Raxttramot hea disalleacho zolm mullant vilinikoronnank virodh korpak zalo. Raxttramotachi bhumika samki spoxtt axil’li. Tatunt sodancheo khobream vangdda sompadaki ani her vyeoktik lekhanchim sodram choltalim. Tatunt janmot kolachea kallar gazil’lem sodor mhonnje ‘Brahashtr’. Uday Bhembre hanche gerhajirent Jonardon Phaldessai ani Harishchandra Nagvenkar hannim tatunt borop kelam. Brahastr sodorant mud’deak dhorun turkshudh pod’dhotin songhprodeshacho prochar zatalo. Dekhik- vilinikoronn zalear eksongh rajyeachi rajdhani Mumbai zatoli. Toxench High Court vo her sorkari karyalai Mumbai astolim. Taka lagun Goykarani gersoi zatli. Chatrapat Shivaji vo Marathi sont poromporecho adar Goy vegllem rakhunui ballgum yeta. Te khatir Goy Maharashttrant vilin korpacho atmaghat korchelo nikhalos goroz na.

‘Songhprodesh Jyoti-chem’ Yogdan

Shabu Dessai ho Cuncolim ganvcho ek suttke zhuzari. Tannem janmot kolant aplem oxem kherit yogdan dilam. Marathi sonvskrutik poromporechea dubhavan Hindu ‘Bahujan Samaz’ vilinikoronna vatten zhuzta tem polloun Shabu Dessai hanchi osvosthai vaddli. Goyank vilinikoronna pasun vattaile na zalear Goykaranchem ostitv kabar zatolem oxem tankam dislem. Dkhun tannim poili Shantadurga Kunkollkarin devichi prosad-paklli ghetli. Devi Shantadurgechi ek protima toiar keli. Ti eka pallkhint ghalun sozoili. Tiche ‘songhprodesh jayot yatra’ oxem namkoronn kelem ani ‘amchem Goy amkam zai’ h sondex di’it tannim puray Goyant Pednem sakun Kankonn meren bhonvddaili. Te ‘songhprodesh jayot yatrek’ upatt protisad mell’llo.

Maharashttr fuddareani ani Goychea Marathi somorthkani janmot kolachea procharant bhosonkhea Hindu Goykara modim ‘Marathi porompora ani Hindutv’ hanche modem sangodd ghalpacho yotn choloilo. Ten’na bhosonkhea Hindu somazak Marathi ani Maharashttra vatten ravop mhonnche dhormnixtta pallop oxem disunk laglem. Khorem mhonnche, vilinikoronnvaleanchea dhormik procharak bahaujan somaz bolli poddttalo. ‘Maharashttr tituka mellvava, Maharashtr dhorm vaddvava’, ‘Kolhapurachi ambabai shantadurgala bhettnnar’ oxeo dhormik axecheo ghoxnna tancher probhav ghaltaleo. Oxea vellar Shabu Dessai hannim Goykarponn rakhche khatir songhprodesh jayot toyar korun Hindu dhormik Goykaram modem zagrutai haddli. Tachoi porinnam Hindu motdarancher zal’lo dixtti poddta. Karonn janmot kolant sumar 60 te 62 hozar Hinduni Goy vegllem rakhpak motdan kel’lem.

Ulhas Buyao Hachem Yogdan

Ulhas Buyao hanchea ‘Jai Gomantak Kala Pathkan’ Goykaram modem vilinikoronna add vatavoronn toyar kelem. Te Goykaram modem Konknni songitantlean apleponnachi zagrutai nirmann korpak dis-rat vvurle. Maharashttrantle sahir Amarshok, sahir Sablle ani Liladhar Hegde hannim git-songit, povade ani her Marathi sonvskrutik karyavolli sador korun Goybhor choloil’lo vilinikoronnacho prochar moddun kaddpachem karya Ulhas Buyao hannim kelem. Tea vellar prochar-sobhent poili ‘Jai Gomantak Kala Path-kachi’ songitachi karyavoll ani magir voktyanchi ulovpam oxe karyavollichem svorup astalem. Bakibab Borkar, Manohar Sardessai, Shankar Bhandari, Vijaybab Sarmallkar, Dasraj Telang ani Ulhas Buyao hanchim gitam Jai Gomantak Kala Pathok sador kortalo.

Maharashttrantlean aayat kel’lea kalapathkak zap diunche khatir toyar zal’lea tea kala pathkant Ulhas Buyao hanche vangdda Mohan Karapurkar, Shankar Bhandari, Pundalik (Dada) Kelekar, N. Shivdas, Navnath Naik, Vinna Kattkar, Smruti Kattkar, Suresh Kakoddkar, Sudan Shett, Suresh Namshikar, Mahesh Namshikar hancho vantto astalo. Janmot kolachem zoit manovpak Madganvam Lohia moidanar zal’le bhaxik sobhent potrkar Ann’nna Phonos hanni janmot kolant dil’lea yogdana khatir Ulhas Buyao hancho ‘ha amchea Govacha sahir’ mhunn ul’lekh kel’lo ten’na saun ‘Goy sahir’ hi podvi Ulhas Buyao hankam favo zali.

Anti-Major Front-achem Yogdan

Janmot kolachea vilinikoronn addchea prochar karyant ten’nachi Goa Congress, U.Go pokx toxench her somvichari sonstha toxench vyeoktini ‘Anti-Major Front’ sthapun Goy vegllem rakhche khatir yotn kelo. Tea Front-an 1965 vorsachea April mhoineant Borda Margao vilinikoronn virodh korpa khatir Vinayak Mayenkar, Laxmannrao Sardessai, Armando Menezes, Rudolf D’melo, Eniu Pimente, Ravindr Kelekar, Shankar Bhandari adi fuddareani ek vhodd anti major convention ayojit zalem. Goykaranchi bhas Marathi nhoi konknni. Dekhun kherit bhaxen Goykaran vegllem rajy favta oso sur tea convention-antlean ailo. Te bhair anti-major front-a vatten khaxa korun dokxinn Goyant songhprodeshacho prochar kelo.

Puroshotam Kakoddkarachem Yogdan

Goychea suttke zhuzant vavuril’le Kakoddkar hanchi mukt Goyant Goa Pradesh Congress Committee-che (GPCC) nimontrok mhunn 1962 vorsa nemnnuk zali. Fuddem te te committee-che odheokx legit zale. Tanche Congress pokxantlea vorixtt fudaream kodden ani Nehru-Gandhi ghorannea kodden lagimchem sombond asle. Tannim Nehru, Shastri, Moraji Dessai, Guljarilal Nanda, S.K. Patil, K. Kamraj, Indira Gandhi adi vorixtt Congress fuddareank Goycho proxnn pottoun diupachem moladik karya kelem.

1964 vorsa Mai mhoineant Jawaharlal Nehru bhair poddle. Ten’na Lalbahadur Shastri prodhanmontri zale. He sondhech faido gheun kendr sorkarantle sorxonn montri ani Maharashttrantle vorixtt Congress fuddari Yeshwantrao Chauhan-an Goycho proxnn soddoupak ‘mudotpurv vechnnuk’ hoch poryay yog asa oxem Shastrik somzaupak yesh zoddlem. Hea vellarui Kakoddkaran prodhanmontri Shastrik somzaupacho yotn kelo. Mozgoti Lalbahadur Shastri toxkondak ochkit moronn ail’lean Indira Gandhi prodhan montri zali ten’na Kakoddkaran Goa Pradesh Congress-chem nove odheokx Ligorio C. Carvalho hanchea sohokaryan mudotpurv vechnnuk gheupacho nirnnoi fattim gheun janmot kol gheupachi magnni Congress fuddaream lagim keli. Hea yotnantlean 3 September 1966 disa Congress pokxachea kendr sonsodi Board-ache boskent S.K. Patil hannim Goychea Opinion Polacho prostav manddlo ani Goychea rajki fuddaracho proxnn mudotpurv vechnnukent nhoi tor ‘Opinion Pol’ gheun soddoupacho tharav Congress pokxan muzur kelo.

Nixkorx

1967 vorsa zal’lo Opinion Pol somazshastry nodren obheasun tachi chikitsok molavnni korum yeta. Soglleant poili gozal mhonnllear, Goya bhailean puroskrut vilinikoronnvadi rajkaronn, somazkaronn, bhaskaronn, potrkarita sarkeo gozali pola khatir karnnibut asleo. MGP 1963 vorsachea Dezember-an zal’le Goy Daman ani Diu songhprodeshache vechnnukent vott 16 amdarank vidhansobhen dhaddun Dayanand Bandodkarak Goycho poilo mukhelmontri kel’lo. Toxench Opiion Pola uprant 1967 vorsa zal’le vechnnukentui porot Dayanand Bandodkar ani M.Go bhovmotan sot’ter ailo. Punn modim 1967 vorsa 16 Janevarik zal’lea janmot kolant Goykarani ‘Goyche Maharashttrant vilinikoronn’ (Merger of Goa in Maharashtra) hem dhoronn sap nhoikarlem. Hachoch orth Goykaram modim ontorgot motbhed kitem asle tori Goyche niz bhaxik ani rajki osmitayek badikar haddpi koslich gozal Goykar khopoun ghenant oso zata. Opinion Pol-an M.Go pokxache bhumikecho Goykarani songhprodeshak kol diun virodh kelo.

Polachi adhisuchovnni jahir zauche adim, Konknni ani Marathi somorthkam modim somnovoi ani somjikai yevche khatir pott’tidken vaurpi jextt Gandhivadi vicharvont Kakasaib Kalelkar hanchi bhumika bhov mhotvachi thartali. Kakasaib he svotache konknni viximche vo Goychea svotontr osmitaye viximche bhumikek ‘raxttr ekatmotecho (National Integration) vichar mantale. Kakasab vorich Bharotache poile prodhanmontri Jawaharlal Nehru he legit Goyche veglle ani svotontr vyeoktimotv abadit urchem hea vicharache axil’le. Tanche Goy bhetter Divchol-chea bhatgramant 24 (1963) zal’le sobhent sadaronn 20,000 lokamukhar Nehru-n spoxtt kel’lem – “Goans will be free to solve their problems, Delhi does not want to impose any decision on the people… Goa has come back to the Goans. Goans will now look after themselves. The future is in their own hand’ (Navhind Times 25th May 1963).

Punn uprant 1963 te 1966 meren sabar rajki ghoddnuko ghoddleo tatunt Goyche ani Delhi-che rajkaronn probhavit zalem ani tachi porinniti mhunn nimanne 16 Janevari 1967 disa Goycho rajki fuddar tharovpi itihasik Opinion Pol zalo. ‘Opinion Poll 1967: Analytical Study of Voting Pattern’ he Suresh Amonnkar, Pundalik Gaitonde, Eufeminio Dias, Gurudas Dukllo ani Mohan Tamba hanni sompadit kel’le pustokint Goychea janmot nikallachem vixllexonn zalam. Tatunt tannim Pednem tem Kankonn merenchea 28 motdar songhant vividh dhormatlea motdarani koxem motdan kelem tacho sod ghetla. Tacho sondorb ghetlear, songhprodesha vatten poddil’lim Hindu-chim 60,0000 motam (19%) Goychea janmot kolant nirnnoyak tharlim oxem tanchem mot asa.

Voile molavnne velean ek gozal spoxtt zata: janmot kol ho pox patlle velo sota melloun divpi ekhadem rajki vechnnukecho vixoy nikhalus naslo. Dekhun taka fokt rajki sorupachi vechnnuk mhunnum nozo. Karonn tatunt ek takivont bhaxik ani sonvskrutik totv axil’lem. Toxench tem puraiponnan dhormik sod’bhavnecho puroskar korpi axil’lem. Teach totvak lagun Goychi rajki ani bhaxik osmitayechi lagnnuk ballgumpi soglleank dhormachea Goykarani ekthaim yeun vistarvadi mansiktayek harovpachem itihasik karya janmot kolantlean kelem.

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